Following is a detail of each course taught at Jung Tao School. To view an outline of courses offered in each year of the program, see the Course Outline page.
E-100 Energetic Anatomy and Physiology
This course provides students with a thorough understanding of Energetic Anatomy and Physiology in the healthy state. Topics covered include the following:
Chinese Medical Philosophy and Theory: A survey of the nature of Daoism and why the Daoist perspective provides the more dependable vantage point from which one may begin an exploration of Chinese medicine. In this course the roots of Chinese medical philosophy are examined in the context of Daoist philosophy, utilizing the Dao De Jing and some of the writings of Chuang Zi. The concept of the human organism as a microcosm of the macrocosm is discussed.
"In order to truly understand Chinese medicine in a way that makes it real for us, we must understand it at the same level that the originators of the system understood it."
History of Chinese Medicine: Here we explore the impact Confucianist ideologies had on the stability and continuity of Chinese medical concepts. This course examines the application of ethical, familial, and political analogies to biological phenomena. Also discussed are "Schools of Thought", i.e. concepts of: TCM and Eight Methods; Channel, Wrist, Hand, and Ankle Acupuncture; Constitutional Acupuncture; Shallow Technique; Five "Element" Acupuncture; Micro Systems. Finally, the distortions of Western criteria upon Chinese medical theory are explored. Students and faculty, in dialogue, examine the difference between the methods and standards of quantitative Western causal analysis (the Western c.g.s. system) and the qualitative Chinese system of inductive synthetic reasoning (yinyang, wuxing, bagua).
Physics and Chinese Medicine: An introduction to current concepts, theories and discoveries of modern physics and the contemporary understanding of cosmological forces which determine the behavior of all matter and energy in the universe. We then correlate these forces with the ancient concepts of Chinese medicine.
Matter and Energy - Yin Yang Science: An introduction to the polar nature of the cosmos from the particular to the whole, the inseparably relative nature of, the infinite divisibility of, and the transformative nature of yin and yang.
Time and Space - The Wuxing and The Bagua: A clarification of the purposely ambiguous nature of the transitional emblems of the wuxing (wood, fire, earth, metal, and water), to dispel the misconception of any material relationship to elemental substances. We then explore the observations of the natural cycles of nature upon which these five movements are based, and how those same cycles and their corollaries are expressed in the internal environment. The sheng and ke (generatory and governing) cycles are also discussed as the internal homeostatic mechanism by which the internal and external environment is kept in balance. Also discussed is the bagua, or the eight phenomena, as a representation of the three dimensional nature of the universe, the place where events occur, and how that manifests in the human being.
The Nature of Qi: An introduction to the concept of qi. Clarification of its common misinterpretation as "energy", rather than as "force" or "impetus". Discussion of the three primary types of biological qi: yuan (ancestral), ying (nutritive) and wei (defensive), as well as their sources.
Visceral Fields - Zangxiang: Here the anatomy and physiology of the body is explored as a function of the field effect of the organs (orbisiconography). The interactions of those fields are responsible for erecting the form and orchestrating the function of the human being. An introduction to the terms resonance, induction, accretion, and coercive forces, and an explanation of why these terms from physics, electronics, acoustics, and metallurgy have surprisingly useful application in Chinese medicine and taijiquan.
The Channels and Vessels of Acupuncture: A complete overview of the channels and collaterals of acupuncture, including an introduction to the energetic effects of their functions. Systems of nomenclature, cartography vs. physiology (meridians vs. channels), and the 72 channels and vessels of acupuncture are introduced. In addition, the anatomical location and palpation of the channels and vessels, as well as an introduction to body measurements, cun and fen, are discussed.
Classical Order of Jings: The "circulation" and energetics of the twelve principal channels is discussed, as well as the dynamics of the transversal luo connections and the defensive network: the capillary channels, the tendinomuscular channels, and longitudinal luos. The cyclical nature of these systems is further explained, as is the concept of the channels as "fields" of the organs, as well as flowing rivers of energy.
Phase Relationships: An introduction of the relationships and concordances of the five "body parts" of Chinese medicine: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. An understanding of the continuum of each of the phases, from the most yin organ to the most yang mentation, is discussed.
The Liu Qi : An introduction to the six concentric fields of the organism: the taiyang, shaoyang, yangming, taiyin, jueyin and shaoyin. The concept of increasingly vital and dense spheres of qi as an integral part of the health of the organism is discussed at length, as well as the association of the energetic "layers" as a fractal representation of the heaven, life, and earth of the body.
The Energetic Striations: A discussion of the four energetic striations in the body: wei, ying/wei, ying and blood, and their associations to the various tissues in the body and the liu qi.
Yuan Qi and the Eight Curious Vessels: An exploration of the origin and distribution of yuan, or ancestral, qi. The energetic lodge of the kidneys, the common internal channel and the eight curious vessels are discussed. Also covered is the role of yuan qi as the intelligence of the body, tissue and cell specialization and differentiation, regulation of the rhythmic properties of the body, and orchestration of the reproductive and endocrine systems.
Sanjiao Energetics: A detailed elaboration of the serial decantation, distribution, and utilization of matter transformed into the varied forms of qi (wei, ying, jing, shen) via the metabolic refinements of the upper, middle, and lower jiao. The role of the sanjiao in the distribution and decantation of the pure and impure body fluids, the jin-ye, is discussed in detail, as well as the production of blood and the 10 organic liquids.
The Shu Antique points: Students are introduced to acupuncture points by studying the energetic functions and locations of these important and commonly used points.
E-200: Energetic Diagnosis
This course is split up into two sections: lecture and clinique.
Lecture: The lecture portion provides an in-depth study of the diagnostic process, which can be subdivided into two main categories:
Gathering Diagnostic Information: Communicating with and interviewing the patient is covered, including listening, counseling, explaining, and teaching the patient, as well as the issue of patient compliance. The crucial process of gathering information from the patient interview and examination is thoroughly demonstrated and amply rehearsed to give the student complete fluency with this diagnostic method. Use of the pulse and tongue as diagnostic tools is discussed and practiced, including pulse positions, rate, amplitude, and quality, as well as areas and qualities of the tongue as diagnostic indicators. Observation of odors, skin, nail and hair color and quality, and sound of the voice is also discussed.
Arriving at a Diagnosis: By first exploring what causes health, the origins of illnesses become evident in terms of their external and internal influence on the energetic field of the human being. We observe their original symptomatic manifestations from both Chinese and Western perspectives, and chart the natural homeostatic mechanisms which return the system to a state of health. Etiology of energetic disease, progression of external pathogenesis, progression of internal pathogenesis, latent pathogenic qi, continuum of soma through psyche, and yin through yang are discussed.
We examine the criteria applied to the presenting case information in order to arrive at an accurate diagnosis: the wuxing, classical order of jings, the energetic layers, sanjiao energetics, the eight curious vessels, and the eight parameters (internal/external, hot/cold, empty/full, yin/yang).
Clinique: In clinique format, the areas of study set forth in the lecture portion of this course is applied to live patients. Under the supervision of the instructor, students interview and collect all relevant diagnostic information from the patient. All information is then examined by the group according to the previously mentioned criteria, and a diagnosis reached.
E-202 Point Location (with Introduction to Point Energetics)
This course is designed to provide the student with a thorough introduction to point location, palpation, and basic point energetics. Course emphasis is on body-centered learning. Emphasis will be given to 100 "commonly used points," plus more than 100 frequently used points, and 34 extra points most commonly found in the NCCAOM examination. Basic, general knowledge of categories of points and their special characteristics are taught. Differences in point locations, terminology, and notation among traditions of acupuncture are introduced, as well as the concept of alternative, unique, or idiosyncratic point locations.
Students are given their first guidance in palpatory detection of abnormal tone, temperature, or texture along channel pathways, and finding ashi tender points. Forbidden points, hazards, cautions, and contraindications are introduced. Pathways of the 72 channels and vessels are discussed.
By working with each other, students will begin developing professional skills and manner needed with patients; the use of the treatment table, positioning the patient, and the draping and exposing of body parts for treatment purposes. The course also provides a supervised introduction to clean needling technique and needling application, giving students their first needling experience, prerequisite to CCAOM's Clean Needle Technique course. (Students will attain a more indepth experience with needling techniques, point energetics, and point combinations in the subsequent courses presented in the third academic year.)
E-300 Energetic Treatment
As with the year two diagnostic course, E-300 is split up into two sections: lecture and clinique.
Lecture: The lecture portion of this course focuses on treatment strategies from an energetic perspective, and can be subdivided into three main categories:
Acupuncture Point Energetics: The energetics of the points of acupuncture are covered in detail. We discuss their therapeutic functions and interconnections, as well as their contraindications. A detailed discussion of the major classifications of points are covered, including the shu antique points, front mu points, back shu points, jing shen points, xi cleft points, luo points, yuan points, and points of special action.
The Art of Point Selection: The acupuncture points previously introduced are reviewed in the context of an appropriately designed treatment strategy, taking into account the energetics and the function and interrelationships between the points, as well as economy of point selection. The process of point selection as an art form - "creating a symphony" with each treatment - is taught. The musical concepts of harmony, rhythm, counterpoint, and chords are discussed in the context of the field effects of the acupuncture points.
The Treatment Process: The previously introduced diagnostic criteria are utilized in determining an effective and logical course of treatment and case management. The eight therapeutic methods are introduced: tonification, sedation, calorification, refrigeration, purgation, vomitorization, sudorification, and regularization. Elaboration of treatment strategies specific to the presentation and etiology of the condition of imbalance is also discussed: the wuxing, classical order of jings, the energetic layers, sanjiao energetics, the eight curious vessels, and the eight methods (internal / external, hot / cold, empty / full, yin / yang) are used to track the progression and properties of the energetic distortions.
Clinique: The areas of study set forth in the lecture portion of this course is applied to live patients in clinique format. Under the supervision of the instructor, students interview and collect all relevant diagnostic information from the patient, and, upon reaching an accurate diagnosis, the class then discusses possible treatment strategies, until an appropriate treatment plan is reached. Patients are then treated by student clinical staff, to insure the students receive complete instruction in the full treatment process.
E-302 Treatment Skills
This third year course hands on prepares students for the actual treatment of patients and interviewing techniques. The various modes of achieving therapeutic effect (acupressure, acupuncture, electroacupuncture, moxibustion) are introduced, as well as the appropriate uses and applications of each. Students are instructed in proper technique and practice under supervision in a laboratory setting. Other techniques such as tuina, anesthesia (analgesia), bleeding, plum blossom, and cupping are also discussed and practiced. Students are instructed in proper selection and maintenance of equipment, state and federal regulations concerning equipment, safety, cleanliness, and hygiene, sterile field, and clean needle technique.
Students are also familiarized and instructed on dealing with high risk factors, including pregnancy, special risk pathologies, and pediatric concerns. Knowing when, how, and to whom to refer is also covered. Instruction is given on complications such as fainting, seizure, and emotional release, with effective methods for their resolution.
E-101, E-201, E-301 Taijiquan
Taijiquan is a means of directly experiencing, on a physical and emotional level, the same principals on which Chinese medicine is based. Students have the opportunity to explore, in themselves, the application of Yin & Yang, the Five Movements (WuXing), and the 8 Marvels (BaGua), as well as the effects of Taijiquan on all body systems including; emotional and psychological states.
During the first year of Taijiquan instruction, the student will be able to precisely perform the first 1/3 of the Taijiquan form. We will also begin to explore the principles underlying Taijiquan. Students are encouraged to make every effort possible to apply the principles of Taijiquan during the execution of the form. These principles include but are not limited to: relaxation, centering, correct body mechanics and present moment awareness.
During the secong year of Taijiquan instruction, the student will be able to precisely perform 2/3 of the Taijiquan form. Students are encouraged to continue striving to apply the principles of Taijiquan during the execution of the form and their daily lives. Students will begin the practice of single hand Tui-Shou (Push Hands) which is designed to deepen the application of Taijiquan's principles and cultivate Tengiin (Listening Skills) to help students further refine their palpation skills for use in taking pulses.
During the third year of Taijiquan instruction, the student will complete the last third of the Taijiquan form developed by Professor Cheng Man Ching as taught by Jung Tao School. Students will continue the practice of single hand Tui-Shou and will begin double hand Tui-Shou (Push Hands). We will also explore the eight original energies of Taijiquan; Ward-Off, Roll Back, Press, Push, Pull-Down, Split, Shoulder Stroke and Elbow Stroke in relation to the movement of Qi and their use in acupuncture.
P-300 Professional Skills
This course explores issues the student will encounter while setting up and conducting an acupuncture practice, including:
Medical Ethics and Jurisprudence: discussion of patient confidentiality, privileged information, professional and appropriate behavior, ethical and legal aspects of referrals, and recognition and clarification of patient expectation. Malpractice, liability, negligence, professional misconduct, and scope of practice are detailed.
Practice Management: an introduction to setting up and maintaining an efficient and legal acupuncture practice. Topics such as starting a business, hiring staff, taxes, and financial recordkeeping are discussed.
Counseling: effective interaction and counseling of patients.
B-100 Anatomy and Physiology
This course encompasses introductions and in-depth analysis of the basic biomedical sciences as foundational to the clinical science and their applications. These encompass anatomy and physiology, including gross and regional anatomy, basic and integrated human organ structure and function, their homeostatic and integrated regulatory functioning and basic medical terminology; neurosciences, including brain and neuronal structure and function, electrochemical gradients and propagation, integrated brain and spinal function, and basic psychological principles; reproductive and endocrine physiology and genetics, including basic endocrine and gonadal anatomy and physiology, gamete production and fertilization and the structure of DNA and its transmission, feedback endocrine regulation and integrated end-organ function. This course includes medical terminology, especially commonly utilized abbreviations, organized to correlate with the systems studied in this course. The student will manipulate prefixes, suffixes, and roots to create and interpret terms related to organ systems, physical variations, and pathological conditions.
B-101 Biomedical Sciences
This course begins with a survey approach to three major biomedical sciences: biology, physics, and chemistry. Major theories and thoughts from these subject areas are presented and discussed in relationship to the understanding of medicine. The students are also given a module on pharmacology and nutrition. In addition, this course includes a module designed to present common anatomical reference terms and to provide the student the opportunity to recognize and palpate structures that are used for location. Students will develop skills in palpation to allow differentiation between bone, tendons, muscles, and soft tissue
This course includes the study of cell and organ abnormal physiology and pathology and an introduction and in-depth analysis of western disease mechanisms and processes. Basic concepts discussed include the inflammatory process; cell injury, repair and degenerative processes and wound healing; vascular, autoimmune, infectious, genetic and neoplastic disease mechanisms. A survey of organ/system pathological processes are presented.
Students are taught standard Western techniques to evaluate and diagnose illnesses. Procedures covered include the physical examination, taking the patient's temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure, as well as height and weight. Simple vision and hearing tests are taught, as well as commonly used laboratory test procedures. Additionally, students are instructed in Western pharmaceuticals, their uses, and their physiological and energetic functions and ramifications. Students learn how to interpret basic laboratory reports and indications that should alert them to refer patients to a western medical doctor.
The clinical training is the culmination of the entire Jung Tao experience. Here the students become practitioners of the art of Chinese medicine, and synthesize and apply the subtler aspects of patients interaction. Under the guidance of experienced acupuncturists, they will begin by observing acupuncture procedures and later care for patients in the school's public clinic, taking full responsibility for all aspects of patient care and case management.
The main purpose of the clinical training is to effect a transfer of knowledge from theory learned in the classroom to the actual acquisition of skills in clinical acupuncture, with the ultimate goal being the attainment of professional competency for each student graduating from Jung Tao School. This transfer is accomplished by ensuring that each student receives a continuum of clinical experiences that correlate close to the classroom and clinique experiences prevsiously obtained. Students will be exposed to a wide variety of patients and experiences to give them a solid foundation in the application of the principles and doctrines of Classical Chinese Medicine.
C-100 Clinical Observation (Grand Rounds)
The clinical component of the curriculum, and meeting total required clinical contact hours, begins in the first three years with observation in the form of Grand Rounds. C-100 is the first in the series of these three clinical observations. The students will complete three two-day sessions of observation in the classroom where they gain the experience of watching a seasoned, licensed acupuncturist interview, evaluate, and treat three or more patients a day. After the process, the acupuncturist discusses each patient with the students and provides his/her diagnosis and treatment.
C-200 Clinical Observation (Grand Rounds)
C-200 is the second in the series of three clinical observations. The weekends are carefully scheduled to ensure completion of the mandatory educational weeks, and the students begin to more fully participate by asking targeted questions of the patient and taking and evaluating pulses in small rotating groups. The acupuncturist guides the questioning and focuses the students, but allows for greater participation. The patient then leaves the room and the diagnosis is discussed and the treatment strategy is determined. The patient is then treated in the laboratory setting with students observing.
C-300 Clinical Observation (Grand Rounds)
C-300 is the third in the series of three clinical observations. The weekends are again carefully scheduled to ensure completion of the mandatory educational weeks, and the students have more involvement in the questioning and evaluation of pulses and tongues with supervision by the licensed acupuncturist. The students then determine the diagnosis and treatment strategy with input and supervision by the acupuncturist. The licensed acupuncturist has final best treatment for the patient. The patient is treated in the laboratory setting with the students assisting. In addtion to the Grand Rounds observations, the students must schedule and complete 45 hours of direct observation in the intern clinic. This time can be scheduled before or after their scheduled class week.
C-400 Clinical Observation
C-400 is an opportunity for students to observe a clinical supervisor in Advanced Grand Rounds interviewing a patient then each student will check the pulse and tongue, and using the information, provide a succinct synthesis of information gained from the instructors diagnosis and treatment, along with their own ideas from the information they have gathered. The patient is then treated by the interns with supervision by the acupuncturist. It is an opportunity to clarify treatment strategies and symptom interpretation to assist interns in providing patients with more sophisticated diagnoses and treatments. The patients selected are often those with particularly difficult, complicated or challenging conditions.
C-401 Clinical Internship
Under the direct supervision of a licensed acupuncturist, students interview, diagnose and treat patients in the Jung Tao School Clinic. Interns work with patients one on one, and are given increasing responsibility with their patients until the supervisor feels the intern is competent in seeing patients on their own. Completion of C-401 is required before attempting C-402.
C-402 Clinical Internship
Under the indirect supervision of a licensed acupuncturist, students interview, diagnose and treat patients in the Jung Tao School Clinic. Interns work with patients one on one, and are given increasing responsibility with their patients until the supervisor feels the intern is competent in seeing patients on their own. All interns must complete at least 600 hours of clinical training.
C-500 Clinical Apprenticeship I (elective course)
Under the direct supervision of a licensed acupuncturist, the student will serve as a team leader for entering interns, demonstrating proficient techniques of interviewing, diagnosing, and treating patients. When teamed with an entering intern, the student will work with the new intern and share responsibilities of patient care and assist them in adapting to the clinical process. The apprentice will share with the supervising acupuncturist observations and areas in which interns may need additional assistance. This is an elective course and requires successful completion of C-400. Students interested in completing this course must make application to the Clinical Director and undergo an evaluation by clinical faculty to determine suitability for the role. Students must be recommended by the Clinical Director to be considered for this course. 210 Clock Hours 7 Credit Hours
C-600 Clinical Apprenticeship II (elective course)
Under the indirect supervision of a licensed acupuncturist, the student will serve as a team leader for entering interns, demonstrating proficient techniques of interviewing, diagnosing, and treating patients. When teamed with an entering intern, the student will work with the new intern and share responsibilities of patient care and assist them in adapting to the clinical process. The apprentice will share with the supervising acupuncturist observations and areas in which interns may need additional assistance. This is an elective course and requires successful completion of C-400 and C-500. Students interested in completing this course must make application to the Clinical Director and undergo an evaluation by clinical faculty to determine suitability for the role. Students must be recommended by the Clinical Director to be considered for this course. 210 Clock Hours 7 Credit Hours